When I was in university I had the 'pleasure' of reading "On Truth and Falsity in the Ultramoral Sense" (I think the version we were given to read was called that.) The title has many different interpretations: "...in the Hyperreal Sense" "...in the Extra-Moral Sense" "Truth and Falsehood.." anyway you get the idea.
When I went back in my head to remember my "education" after I had been brain injured in this accident, I found memories of this work particularly intriguing. The basic premise of this piece of writing (for me) was that there were translations in anyone's head between the "thing-in-itself" and our relating of this "thing" to another.
Firstly the image you see (which you presume is reality) is taken in by the eyes; this is then processed (translated) and may then move on to another stage of recognition. We build an image of what we have observed; it's characteristics (for instance colour), it's size. Perhaps it's a food that we have observed; another sense may kick in, smell. But that complicates matters, so lets stick with the visual image.
He argued that after we have processed the visual input we may then give descriptors to what we have seen. Put it in to language. Another translation. Then we may speak it; we may write it down, in whatever language we have learnt to use. Some languages may be more or less capable of being used to relate what you mean; what you have seen.
It seemed to me that this had some relevance to me, let me explain why. My sight was broken, 4th optic nerve was affected I recall. It was hard work trying to see properly at first and I had to cock my head to one side to see things sort of "straight". That problem, thankfully, has gone now, or at least my eyes have counteracted it themselves; I know I take more time to look at things now to absorb them, for instance when driving. Perhaps that makes me a better driver? :)
Then I think about the fact that I suffered a traumatic brain injury; it was Richard Hammond, Top Gear presenter that said "My mind was like an office that had been utterly ransacked." That made some sense to me too, as memories/capabilities that used to be there, seemed, gone; took alot of work to get things straight again. My word-finding skills were not so bad at all after the event as measured by Speech and Language Therapists in the Clatterbridge Neuro-rehabilitation unit that I went to once I was becoming conscious. (A GREAT THANKYOU TO YOU, YOU KNOW WHO YOU ARE :)) I know I was worried sick, because I knew I was reasonably good at maths; I could barely add 2 and 2 in my head at first. Scary! Didn't even realise that it had been, and always will be, 5. ;)
Relating what I meant to another was difficult as I couldn't speak much at all :) After 3 years it was reasonably good though and I went to my first job interviews. Dismal failure at a few though, as, my speech gave up on me and I had a few interviewers at one interview looking at each other with a look on their faces somewhere between sympathy and horror. ACE! :)
Anyway I've gone off on one; I'll come back to the point of this little piece.
Nietzsche wrote this work in the late 19th Century; neurologists and the like are understanding that this is actually the case. Different areas of the brain have control over, or are responsible for, different cognitive/biological functions; processes have to go between different areas of the brain. Impact that 'neural network' and things get changed, the 'translations' in your head, that Nietzsche was describing around 1890, do not work as they should/did ..
So all that I want to say is, that for me.. things were lost in all that translation. I will never ever forget the experiences of that time though, ever. I eventually have walked away. Many do not. I will not forget those that can't, or forgive anyone who misuses the situation of brain injury for their own ends.
Image used in this posting from the Headway website